Modern Uv-vis Spectroscopy: A Decade Of Fiber-optic Ccd Array Spectrophotometers

Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy continues to be one of the core disciplines practiced in nearly every analytical laboratory. Since its inception by Cary and Beckman in the 1940s, UV-VIS spectroscopy has revolutionized the field of molecular spectroscopy. Over the decades, numerous improvements have been made with respect to optical designs, including dual-beam optics, variable slit resolution, noise suppression, and integrated electronics.

The proliferation of personal computers in the 1980s resulted in significant improvements in data acquisition and instrument control. Streamlined instrument operation was facilitated through the use of dedicated software applications and the introduction of the user-friendly Windows? operating systems (Microsoft, Redmond, WA). Perhaps the most radical instrument design change that took place in the 1980s was the introduction of the diode array spectrophotometer by Hewlett-Packard, now Agilent Technologies (Palo Alto, CA). In contrast to traditional scanning monochromators that utilize a single photomultiplier tube, this novel spectrograph consisted of an array of photodiodes that permitted simultaneous, full-spectrum data acquisition in seconds. It was an instant hit among users.

The 1990s introduced two significant design additions in the form of charge-coupled device (CCD) array detectors and fiber-optic sampling devices. The typical CCD exhibits very high quantum efficiency and has readout noise that is 100 times lower than comparable photodiode arrays, permitting more efficient utilization of light and an improved signal-to-noise ratio. The use of fiber optics allowed the overall optical footprint to be more compact and thus reduced instrument size. In addition, fiber-optic sampling accessories could be configured for use as probes, making possible numerous, untypical spectroscopic applications such as colorimetry, radiometry, and spectroscopy of solid surfaces.

A quick glance at today?s instrumentation market indicates the popularity of the CCD as the detector of choice. CCD array systems now dominate almost every product line, including nearly all inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometers (atomic spectroscopy) and IR-Raman (molecular spectroscopy) systems sold. These charge-transfer devices (CTD) are composed of CCD, charge injection devices (CID), and CMOS array systems. The overwhelming benefits of either array type are simultaneous, multi-wavelength data acquisition resulting in the fastest, most versatile instruments available. Additionally, CTD array systems have few, if any, moving parts and offer better stability than single-element, vacuum tube detectors such as photomultiplier tubes (PMTs).

Detector options
The optical design and footprint of CCD array spectrophotometers differ considerably from typical scanning spectrophotometers. The larger footprint required for scanning spectrophotometers can be attributed to the increased number of optical surfaces necessary for dispersion and isolation of the desired wavelength prior to transmission through a given sample. In addition, numerous moving parts are necessary for performing scanning functions, slit selection, and beam splitting. In contrast, CCD array spectrophotometers transmit all wavelengths through the sample prior to wavelength isolation. The use of a fixed grating position results in a linear spectrum that is ideally suited for linear CCD arrays and eliminates moving parts within the spectrograph. Fewer moving parts result in improved reliability, thus minimizing instrument maintenance costs and the necessity for service.

Photodiode arrays typically utilize linear arrays consisting of 512 or 1024 photosensitive diodes. In comparison, the most common linear array CCD format currently used is a 2,048-pixel CCD. High-sensitivity, low-noise CCDs having either 2,048 or 3,648 pixels are used in high-performance spectrophotometers offered by S.I. Photonics (Tucson, AZ).

The resulting resolution of an array spectrophotometer is determined by the slit width, dispersion, and pixel binning. Because wavelength dispersion does not incorporate an exit slit, order-sorting filters are essential for linear CCD array UV-VIS spectrophotometers. Improved long-term precision and wavelength accuracy are achieved in CCD array systems by precise temperature control of the spectrograph optics. Fewer optical components result in a smaller spectrograph that can be temperature-stabilized to minimize expansion and contraction of optical components due to changes in ambient temperatures. Typical scanning instruments often have a relatively large optical footprint and do not lend themselves to affordable temperature control of optical components.

Light sources
Typical light sources utilized in UV-VIS spectroscopy include a quartz tungsten lamp for visible wavelengths from 350 to 1000 nm, while deuterium lamps are used for UV wavelengths below 350 nm. Xenon lamps have been used in less expensive systems but do not offer the light throughput, stability, or flexibility of dedicated deuterium and tungsten sources. For the highest performance when choosing an instrument, regardless of scanning or CCD array types, users should look for units that have separate, dedicated light sources.

Fiber optics
When fiber-optic capable systems were first introduced, many critics cited solarization of the optical fibers and photo-oxidation of samples as potential weaknesses of array spectrographs. These two myths were quickly dismissed since solarization-resistant fibers are typically used and sample analysis times are too short for photo-oxidation to occur.

In addition, these effects are virtually eliminated in high-quality optical designs incorporating optical shutters. The optical shutters used in the 400 Series spectrophotometers (S.I. Photonics) precisely control the exposure of light to the fiber-optic devices down to fractions of a second. As a result, the solarization that would normally occur during the first 10 hr of use would require the performance of more than 35,000 analyses before effects are realized. If the optical shutter happens to be positioned prior to sample illumination, photo-oxidation is eliminated entirely.

Sampling options
The sheer number of applications for the modern UV-VIS system is limitless. New uses are routinely discovered and implemented as a result of the versatility offered by the numerous fiber-optic sampling accessories. For example, traditional UV-VIS spectroscopy was limited to liquid matrices utilizing the standard 1-cm cuvettes. The flexible fiber-optic systems available today have introduced UV-VIS spectroscopy to an entire generation of new users. Dip probes now account for more than half of the units sold rather than traditional cuvettes. Fiber-optic reflectance probes allow for the sampling of solid surfaces and powders as well as aqueous matrices. When true diffuse reflectance is needed, integrating spheres are readily accommodated. Today?s systems serve users in scientific research, academic teaching, corporate and industrial QA/QC, pharmaceuticals, radiometry, colorimetry, criminal investigations, and agricultural applications.

Software
CCD array spectrophotometers have the inherent benefit of software flexibility. Because the entire spectrum is made available instantly and stored in memory, these data can be evaluated repeatedly in a number of fashions. Peak location, quantitation, multiple spectrum overlay, and timed acquisition are typical features included.

Timed acquisition
Timed acquisition and kinetics analysis are just two of the applications in which CCD spectrophotometers overwhelmingly outperform scanning systems. Simultaneous, full-spectrum data acquisition offers significant advantages over monochromatic systems, which severely limit data acquisition. Typical CCD spectrophotometers have integrated software capable of displaying spectra as a function of time. As a result, users can choose to view the entire wavelength region over time or simply select discrete wavelengths for temporal studies. These features are extremely valuable for chromatographic applications and fraction collection. Full-spectrum acquisition not only allows for confirmation of the parent compounds, but contaminating artifacts are also identified in real time. These data can then be presented as a three-dimensional plot, providing a powerful tool for drug and metabolite screening and other applications. Kinetics and dissolution testing are also widely used timed acquisition features.

Quantitative analysis
A significant advantage of CCD array systems over conventional scanning systems is that an array system allows for simultaneous background correction at user-selectable locations. Background correction is not available with single-channel scanning systems, which can only monitor one wavelength at a time. In addition, quantitative analysis can be performed at multiple wavelengths simultaneously as well.

Conclusion
The CCD array spectrophotometer of today represents the technological maturation of traditional UV-VIS spectroscopy. These systems are more versatile, reliable, and compact than ever before. In addition, the flexibility afforded through the use of fiber optics and CCD detection has introduced UV-VIS spectroscopy to a new generation of users and applications. New systems incorporating Peltier-cooled CCDs for improved fluorescence applications and dual-beam designs are sure to follow.

Dr. Prevatt is Vice President of S.I. Photonics, Inc., 1870 W. Prince Road, Suite 38, Tucson, AZ 85705; tel.: (520) 293-6911; fax: (520) 293-6911; e-mail: jprevatt@

UV-vis spectrophotometers

Canada – The New Hot Destination For International Students

"The students are the best immigrants for any country." Canada has finally accepted and now moving towards two-step immigration policy, like Australia and others have, that will bring international students who later on will apply for permanent residence and thereafter become Canadian citizens.

Canada plans to double the number of international students in the next 10 years in order to combat the labor shortage due to ageing population.

A recent government-commissioned report on Canada's international education strategy called boosting the number of full-time international students from about 239,000 last year to more than 450,000 by 2022 a "realistic goal." The report emphasized that Canada should focus on markets in China, India, Brazil, Vietnam, Mexico and countries in the Middle East and North Africa which carry a huge potential in terms of quality and quantity to send students to Canada. Even if students don't stay in Canada after their studies, they can cultivate commercial and political relationships between Canada and their home country thereby playing the roles of powerful ambassadors to market study opportunities in Canada for prospective students.

The Student Partners Program (SPP) commonly termed as Students Partnership Program by the students and study abroad consultants in India was implemented in partnership between the Canadian High Commission and the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC) in the year 2009 and has been attracting a good number of students from all over India and has helped Canada emerge as a preferred destination for higher education for overseas students not only from India but from the entire globe.

Suneetha Qureshi, Director of International Office of Kampus Landing- Study Abroad Consultants with offices in India, USA & Canada is worried about the latest trend of rejection of study permit applications at the Canadian High Commission in New Delhi and says, "January visa approval success rate was high, suddenly it has dropped in September; few of our very good students with 7.0 band IELTS score and sound financial background have been rejected. We have got their GCMS reports and will file for January 2013 intakes." But, Suneetha is overall optimistic that this is a temporary phase and January 2013 will be good for the students filing Canada study permits under Student Partners Program in Canadian High Commission in New Delhi.

Analyzing Kid’s Activities

Performing a well-organized behavioral assessment

The idea of an efficient behavioral appraisal is to portray, anticipate, and differentiate the point of kid's performance. Increase the usefulness and good organization of behavior participation plans, and link appraisal/assessment to Individual Education Programs. A focused evaluation could include the following steps that have been advised by Early Childhood Education (ECCE):

1.Define demanding behaviors. The first rate is to identify difficulty/challenging behaviors and then precisely define the actions in noticeable terms. It is useful to include example of the actions and the value of the performance that will be measured. Describe the kid's behavior apparently and particularly.

2.Select examination type. The two necessary approaches to inspection are qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative inspection is explanatory in nature. The spectator begins with thoughts concerning what will be practical and describes the behavior that appears significant. An example of this type is the untrustworthy evidence in which the spectator writes the outline of what comes about throughout the examination. Many times qualitative examination precedes quantitative inspection. Irritability could be observed by means of an event variety method in which information is composed all through the day to see how frequently and when tantrums take place.

3.Build up data collection measures. Data can be composed using several diverse techniques. It's essential to document the regularity of the actions, the length the behavior occurs (duration), and the strength. Event recording works well if the activities are rare. The kid's actions can be observed incessantly and counted using a tally page or wrist counter. Time intermission is useful if the behavior is more regular, and a count of the activities is made during a specific observation period.

4.Impact of Environment on the child's behaviour. Cautious examination of the physical atmosphere can reveal information that is compulsory to recognize the basic cause of a kid's performance. Facial appearance to consider is those associated to transitions among activities in the daily program, the classroom floor plan, and recruitment patterns. According to primary teacher training sometimes several different events occur and cause build-up of frustration for the child.

5.Interview others. Comprehensive interviews allow individuals who have get in touch with the kid the chance to assess information about the kid in more detail. This cluster of people may comprise parents, classroom teachers, or any adults who have caregiving tasks for the kid. The reason of the meeting is to recognize all probable factors that may forecast or set the stage for the actions to take place.

6.Theory of the behavior's function. The information gathered through the observation of the kid and interviewing others will be examined to resolve probable functions of the recognized trouble behavior. The utility of the performance may be to acquire a preferred outcome, or it may allow the child to escape or avoid an unwanted outcome.

7.Build up a behavioral interference plan. From the information gathered all the way through inspection, a clear explanation of the problem behaviors and possibly patterns of performance will form the foundation for a plan. The task of the kid's performance investigation

The Best Way To Save A Cigar

If there is one tragedy where a box of high-quality cigars is concerned it would be in their being ignored and going stale. While many people wrongly believe that a sealed box of cigars is impervious to many common problems, the fact of the matter is that they are not packaged to retain their best qualities. This is the reason that the best tobacconists keep their cigars in proper storage cabinets with humidifiers and hygrometers fully engaged.

Something to always consider when buying or receiving cigars is that they are extremely sensitive to environmental conditions and even when only recently removed from the store shelf they may be unsatisfactory for smoking right away. This might be due to the way they were stored in the tobacco shop, the conditions that existed during shipping, or the way your friend or family member kept them before giving them to you.

The next step requires you to buy a bottle of distilled water which is available at almost any pharmacy, and to dampen a brand new sponge with this water. Ring it out well and place this in the bag with the cigars, but be sure that the sponge is not in contact with any of them. Leave this setup in the closet for another week to ten days. This part of the process is going to slowly rehydrate the cigars without overdoing it and causing them to split wide open.

Once the initial rehydration process has been completed, you can then move them to the humidor that is actively humidifying its contents. Of course you still have another thirty days to wait before the cigars will have reached a decent level of moisture for smoking, but it is well worth the effort and the wait.

If you want to age cigars that have been dehydrated, you simply follow this same process and leave them in the humidor for another full calendar year. The humidity level must be at seventy percent and the ambient temperature at seventy degrees for the process to work successfully.

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Why Pursue A Small Business Online Course?

At one time or another, we all have probably seen those online business opportunity advertisements on the television, internet, or in print and thought of how nice the opportunity sounded. Then, we fell back to reality and thought that it was too good to be true. A lot of Internet and web business opportunities are scams. However, there are also so many online business opportunities that are legitimate.

For a lot of us, the idea of owning our own web business and working from home sounds perfect. You just need to know which online web business opportunity is a true opportunity and which ones are being advertised by opportunists. Fortunately, there exists a wide range of small business online courses that can guide you on starting an Internet business or a web business.

What to look for in a Web or Online Business Opportunity

Sometimes, it is not always easy to tell whether or not an online business opportunity is legitimate or a scam. However, there are certain things that you can look for in order to help you determine whether the opportunity is a scam or legitimate. Here is a list of positive things to look for:

See if the online business opportunity is credible. For instance, a lot of websites have received seals and other acknowledgments from business websites, magazines, etc. Normally, these are displayed on the website right where you can see them. If you do not automatically see them, scroll to the bottom of the page and see if there are any. If there are, research their acknowledger. This could be a good sign.
Check to see if the business online opportunity is registered with the Better Business Bureau. The Better Business Bureau now has a website and provides a seal to websites. However, just because a web business opportunity is registered does not mean that it does not exist. It still could be legit, but a registration with the Better Business Bureau is a positive sign.
Check to see if the Internet business opportunity offers you any free reading material, a small business online course or instructional DVD. If so, take them up on that opportunity.
See if you can speak to a representative directly over the phone. Have the representative answer any questions or concerns that you may have.

Things to Avoid in an Online Business Opportunity

Now that we have seen a list of positive things to look for in a web business opportunity, let?s get started on the list of things to avoid in a business online opportunity:

Avoid unrealistic claims. These can be claims of "getting rich quick?, "getting rich overnight?, "get rich by working from home with little or no effort? etc.
Do not buy in to testimonials. People tend to believe testimonials, even when they look staged just because it is illegal to have fake testimonials. Do not buy in to testimonials. Fake testimonials are illegal, but they still happen, a lot.
Just because an Internet business opportunity claims to be certified and trusted does not mean that it is. What is the opportunity certified with and trusted by who? Do your research.
If an opportunity tells you that you can begin making a lot of money, and it is all for free, you had better think again. We have all heard the old sayings: "It takes money to make money? and "nothing in this life is free.? Any real business takes some work to make money and taking up online business courses will help you differentiate the "wheat from the chaff?.

Don?t let promises of lots of money, yachts and fancy cars take you for a loop.

A Leap Towards The Field of Networking

Different Courses:

Various courses have come into play, which fulfill the requirements of the networking sector. Some of them are:

??? CCNP security training: Cisco certified Network Professional is the certification introduced by Cisco. It is aimed to provide the technological know-how of the computer networks. It focuses mainly on the installation of medium-sized networks, i.e., LAN/WAN. It provides the skills required for routing, switching and bridging the scalable networks. The job profile for the CCNP certified individual is the Network Security Engineer of Router, Switches, Networking devices, and appliances.

??? CCNA security training: Cisco certified Network Associate is the certification introduced by Cisco. It aims at providing the dexterity required to install and support the medium-sized networks. It focuses broadly on how to install, troubleshoot, operate and configure the medium sized network and also verify the connections of WAN. The main highlights of this certification include Serial Line Interface Protocol, (EIGRP) Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol, Routing Information Protocol Version 2 (RIPv2), VLAN, Frame Relay, Ethernet, access control lists. It lays the foundation for the job profile of Network Security Specialist, Network Security Support Engineer and Security Specialist.

??? CCIE security training: Cisco certified Inter-network Expert is the certification introduced by Cisco. It concentrates on the network security and provides in depth knowledge about the sound networking components such as ASA, IOS and VPN solution security features. It directs in troubleshooting complex networking environment and configuring the integrated networking hub. This certification can be obtained in different areas called tracks, these are:

??? CCNP training (Voice, R&S, and SP): Cisco certified Network Professional Voice is the certification provided by the Cisco. The prerequisite for this training is the CCNA voice certification. It aims at developing the skills required to identify the best suitable technology for architecting the secure Cisco Unified Communications networks. It enhances the skills of the network professional to manage the infrastructures of the network along with the knowledge of how to deliver the unified communications services. The CCNP voice training branch targets at combining the Router IOS Catalyst Switch UC features into a unified network UC solution.

??? CCNA training (Voice, R&S, and SP): Cisco certified Network Associate Voice is the certification provided by the Cisco. It basically aims at enhancing the VoIP technological skills such as IP telephony, IP PBX, call control, handset and voice mail solutions. The job profile associated with such a certification is voice engineer, voice manager, voice technologies administrator.

These are some of the courses designed to enhance the networking field. Once enrolled in any of the given training, the network security skills are enhanced and the individual evolves as a professional.

000-780 Latest Dumps

The 000-780 PureFlex Sales Specialist will have experience with the PureFlex family and hands on experience in customer environments, buying behavior, and solutions. A minimum of 3 months is recommended. A minimum of one year experience in one of these areas: servers, storage, networking, or systems management.

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Test 000-780: IBM certification PureFlex System Sales V1

Apply Information / Propose Solution

Describe and use applicable presales tools (i.e. - xRef, Competitive Sales Tool, Configuration and Options Guide (COG), and ServerProven, ATSMon, Power Calculator, Interoperability Guide, SSCT, Blue Horizon, Disk Magic, xConfig, eConfig).

Engage appropriate support structure (i.e. - PureFlex Sales and Technical Sales structure, Tiger Team, ATS, Techline, Competeline, FTSS, Business Partner support, Distributor support).

Manage presales channel and option issues.

Propose an PureFlex solution framework based upon customer needs.

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Properties Of Amber

It is said that Amber has many mystical properties. It is said to bring good luck. It is also said to be magnetic and sensual. Since amber is associated with time, cycles and longevity, it gives the wearer attractive and a long enjoyment of his qualities. It is also said to heal and stimulate the mind and balance aggressive traits.

Amber has been used longer than any gem material by humans, possibly over thousands of years. It is fairly common, easy to work with and a constant wonder to the eyes.

Amber is a powerful chakra cleanser and healer. At a physical level, it imbues the body with vitality and has the power to draw disease out of the body. By absorbing pain and negative energy, thie gemstone allows the body to rebalance and heal itself. It alleviates stress.

It strengthens the mucus membrane and treats the throat, stomach, spleen, kidneys etc. As an elixir and for wound healing, it is an excellent natural antibiotic.

The wearer of amber is said to become quite decisive. It strengthens memory and intellect and helps with emotional calming and centering. It transmutes negative energy to positive and is an excellent grounding crystal. This gem radiates a warm and bright energy. It aids in healing of abdomen, bladder, blood, eyes, kidneys, stomach, tissue revitalization and joint problems. Amber is said to neutralize negative energy and allow the body to heal itself by drawing the disease out of the afflicted areas.

Amber is reputed to help to release stress, as well as promoting self-healing. It is excellent for eyes, and for glandular swellings of the throat and lungs. Amber balances endocrine and digestive network.

Amber stone, usually a golden to yellow-brown stone and sometimes containing red, blue or green hues is considered to be good for mental clarity, balance emotions and is said to help with memory loss. It also gives good protection from radiation.

Baltic amber is warm to touch. This gem possesses electrostatic properties, and continues to be utilized for healing purposes. The unusually great power this gem is embedded in its ability to produce negative ions that affects man by easing pain, activating the healing process, and providing protection from harmful radiation. It is worth to have this simple natural ionizer and become familiar with it.

Assessment Level For Australian Student Visa

Student visa is a compulsion for those who want to study in Australia. No matter whether it is a degree program or diploma program or certificate program you have enrolled your name for, visa is a must-have to take an entry through the corridor of the Australian institutes of learning. There are certain procedures for visa application. Each and every application is duly assessed on the basis of merit level. Assessment level makes the entire process more simplified and facilitates quicker and better service to the flocks awaiting for Student Visa Australia with bated breath.

Assessment Level - A Snippet

Visa program in Australia is transparent from start to finish. Students from all over the globe flock to Australia to study different disciplines. And this number is on accelerated rise. At present, visa is granted to the students from 190 different countries. Objectivity of the level is the key factor in ensuring consistency as to the decision making for a wider range of applicants. This process also plays a pivotal role in determining the set of requirements.

How Assessment Level Is Determined?

Australian Student Visa program is divided into five levels. These levels are duly attuned to the risk which is a possibility. The risk factor is involved because of immigration from a particular country. Level 1 is the lowest immigration risk and level 5 is the highest in this regard. Higher the Assessment level, more and more of the evidential proofs need to be submitted in support of the claims for study visa.

This level is assigned to the countries the applicants belong to. This level is measured on the basis of the risk factor as calculated and associated with a particular country. In order to calculate the Level of Assessment for a certain country and education sector, the immigration department checks if the that particular group is compatible with the visa application conditions and other indicators that assess the immigration risk in the last year. When a group is found to pose a higher level of immigration risk for a certain period of time at a stretch, the department takes an instant action by assigning more Assessment level to the group. As a result, the applicants from that country are obliged to submit more evidences in order be granted Student Visa Australia.

These indicators play a pivotal role in the entire process of level assessment. The group's indicators imply its tendency to comply to the visa conditions. For the lower immigration risk groups, it is lowered. This also reduces the requirements for more evidences to support their claims for visa.

What Assessment Level You Belong to

Your valid passport and education sector of your main study program collaboratively contribute to the Assessment of Level. For its identification, your passport type must match with the visa subclass for the education arena of the principal course that you want to study. This level remains in effect for both your visa subclass and passport on the very date when you lodged an application with the immigration department.